Classification systems, with concepts and definitions, are tools which allow for harmonised registration of data so that comparable data can be obtained. Shortlists may be constructed on the basis of classification systems. The European Commission uses these international classifications in order to collect high-quality and harmonised data.
Main classification systems used for health indicators are listed below.
Main classification systems
- The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is published by the World Health Organization (WHO). This classification system is widely used for mortality and morbidity statistics. Its 10th revision (ICD-10) has been used by WHO Member States since 1994. The 11th revision of the classification has started and will continue until 2018.
- The Eurostat “European shortlist” of 86 causes of death is based on ICD10. The International Shortlist for Hospital Morbidity Tabulation (2005) is also based on ICD-10 and is used by Eurostat, WHO, OECD and NOMESCO to collect and present data on hospital discharges. It is available in English, French and German.
- Several classification systems exist for the registration of clinical procedures. These include the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification” (ICD-9-CM), maintained jointly by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), and the NOMESCO Classification of Surgical Procedures (NCSP).
- The International Classification for Health Accounts (ICHA) forms a basis for the System of Health Accounts (SHA). The SHA is an internationally accepted tool, developed jointly by the OECD, the European Commission and WHO, and used for describing, summarising and analysing expenditure on health and its financing.
Other classification systems
- The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a system based on a bio-psychosocial model of functioning and disability. It is published by the WHO and was adopted in 2001 by the World Health Assembly.
- The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO), under the responsibility of the ILO (International Labour Organization), is a tool for organizing jobs into a clearly defined set of groups according to the tasks and duties undertaken in the job. It is used to define the health professions.
- International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), 1997 version, 2011 version
- The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States. It was developed by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
- Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) is a system which enables assessment of cost of health care through a classification of patients based on demographic, diagnostic and therapeutic attributes. DRGs have been used for reimbursement purposes.
- Classifications of Rare diseases – Orphacodes – are available from Orphanet
- Case definitions of communicable diseases from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)